Hammel, A. M., Hickox, R. A., & Hourigan, R. A. (2016). Winding it back: A framework for inclusive music education. In A. M. Hammel, R. A. Hickox, & R. M. Hourigan (Eds.), Winding It back: Teaching to individual differences in music classroom and ensemble settings. New York: Oxford University.
This chapter in "Winding it Back" describes what winding is and why it is important in music education settings. When we talk about Winding we mean adjusting our expectations and requirements to meet each student's needs. winding can either be forward or backward depending on the student and the situation. Winding is backward would might mean that a student is having trouble meeting the same goals as the rest of the class, so you as the teacher can adjust the goals so the student is still reaching the goals and they don't feel like they have been left behind. You can also wind things forward. If a student starts to get bored because they reached the goal earlier than everyone, you can create new and harder objectives/goals for the student so they can continue to be engaged just like their peers.
The goal with winding is to keep every single engaged all the time. Often, as teachers we try to think of students as by their grade level. We focus on those specific objectives and while that works for most kids, it doesn't work for all of them. By including winding in your classroom, you can give yourself the opportunity to include all of your students. In addition, by including winding in your classroom, you can create an individualized plan for each student that helps you track their progress. Lastly, this approach takes away the approach takes away the needs for labels because each student has an individualized model. Including winding in you classroom can help make sure that every student is always be engaged and challenged in class.
McIntosh, P. (1988). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Race, class, and gender in the United States, 6, 188-192.
DeCuir, J. T., & Dixson, A. D. (2004). "So when it comes out, they aren't that surprised that it is there": Using critical race theory as a tool of analysis of race and racism in education. Educational Researcher, 33(5), 26-31.
After reading the McIntosh article about white privilege, I started thinking about how this relates to music education. I realized the music that i've been exposed to in my own education has been very limited to Western classical. I was never really able to explore other areas of music. As a teacher I want to be able to allow students to explore other forms of music. In addition, I want to create an environment where all students feel like they're on the same level. When they walk into my classroom, no one gets special privileges or treatment. I think that the way Music education now we can see exactly what is said in the McIntosh article. You can compare several different programs, whether that is general music or a band classroom. You'll see that schools have more money, more supplies, and the arts are given more attention. Because of this these students get more out of their music education. This article opened my mind up to several problems that we don't talk about enough when it comes to education.
The second article uses examples to example what CRT (Critical Race theory) is. One of the biggest aspects of this is addressing racism in schools. Often times we just ignore racism that is there. When the issue is brought up, we aren't surprised because we know it happens all around us. Another portion of this theory is counter story telling. This involves allowing students to look into other people's shoes. If we put ourselves in other people's shoes, and imagine what they might be experience, we can truly start to understand other view points. Overall, this article allowed several different prospectives and examples of how prevalent racism still is in all school systems. As a teacher, I believe it is my job to try to address issues of racism in my classroom, lead discussions about it and allow students to think about ways we can make all students feel included.
Organization of American Kodály Educators (2018). The Kodály concept. Retrieved from https://www.oake.org/about-us/the-kodaly-concept/
mrfrederickmusic (2012, August, 3). Interview with Zoltan Kodály [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dow-m3BuuNk
J.I M (2015, July 7). Kodály summer school [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrTshUY1oko.
From the interview I watched between Kodály and the conductor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, I learned a lot about Kodaly's background and his approach to teaching. One of the things I learned was that his approach was based on Hungarian Folk songs because that is where he is from. He believed that if this was used in foreign countries that they should develop their own array of songs based on their own country and its traditions. This approach mainly focuses on singing, but Kodály also intended this to focus on some sort of improvisation because he believed that kids are able to take songs they've learned growing up and melodies they have heard and create their own music based on that. He knew that introducing singing would be easier for students because they had heard music and folk songs from their family growing up. The goal of this approach is to develop a well rounded student. Students begin with certain musical skills that continue to grow and build off of one another. This approach allowed teachers to reach a wider range of students because teachers use music that more students can relate to, besides just classical music. Something interested Kodály stated in his interview was that the folk songs of certain countries could easily translated into classical music. This means that his method could foster music making in other aspects like playing instruments. Something else I learned from this reading is that the Kodály approach uses a lot of selfege to develop students musical and listening skills. They are able to hear melodies, harmonies, and dictate them all. After watching the videos and reading the article I learned a lot about Kodály, why and how he created this approach, and how it can foster life long music making for all students.
Allsup, R. E., & Baxter, M. (2006). Talking about music: Better questions? Better discussions! Music Educators Journal, 91(2), 29-33.
In this chapter by Allssup and Baxter, the authors the use of several different questions and their role in engaging students in discussions during class.
Open questions are the most vague questions. These are the most general and can generate the most vague answers from students. Usually teachers will ask these questions before going more in depth. Some examples of this can include:
- What did you like about the song and moves?
- What is this song about?
guided questions are more targeted. They are usually given to elicit a specific response from students. They can also be geared towards what teachers want students to learn. Some examples of this can include:
-How did the moves we did change with the music?
- How do the lyrics correspond to the music?
Closed questions are ones that only produce one single answer. Some examples of this can include:
- how many counts were most of the phrases?
- Can you give the beat of this song?
analytical questions have to do with the elements of music. Some examples of this can include:
- How do the coordinated moves change with the lyrics of the music?
judicial questions help students react to the music. These questions ask more about how students feel rather than specific questions about phrasing. Some examples of this can include:
-What did you like most about this song? What do you feel when you listen to this song?
Creative questions use all the other types of questions and what students learn from that discussion, and allow them the opportunity to put it in context.Some examples of this can include:
- What moves could we use in the chorus of this song to display the lyrics?
Using questions in the class can be helpful to guide students to the answer instead of just teaching concepts and lessons directly. It can also get students to learn how to think critically on their own about participate in discussions and go deeper than just whether or not they liked the music. However, one problem with questions can be more difficult than just giving instruction. It can take up more time, and some students can take longer to grasp concepts than others. While using questions in class can take more time, it is a valuable tool to use to get students to start thinking critically.
I will share reflective essays, and philosophical documents on this page.